The End Of The F * * * Ing World Streaming


The End Of The F * * * Ing World Streaming

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(PDF) A Survey on the Techniques Enhancing Video Streaming

Field Trip: 8 Value Bikes VS the Impossible Climb, 1 Huge

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Gardening Tip of the Week

One of the last weeks for Cool Season Seeds 

September 15th 

Beets at the Gateway Greening Demonstration Garden

This weekend may be the last achoppement to get a seed crop in the ground. Most cool-season vegetables will take two months to get good harvests, especially due to shorter day lengths and glacière temperatures. Vegetables with slip harvest times (radish, lettuce, mustard greens) will be a good choice, as well as root crops (carrot and parsnip) that can be mulched or covered with a cold frame and protected from freezing weather. Spinach can also be sown, however, with some good vêtu this crop can overwinter and provide your first harvests before spring next year.  

You can still Plant some Warm-Season Plants 

August 18 

Summer Squash Blossoms!

This week may be your last difficulté to pousse a warm-season crop. We have just about two months left of frost-free weather left this year so make sure to espèce for those in the 50-60-day range, such as pickling cucumbers, okra, bush beans, and summer squash. This may also give you some lustre against damaging pests, such as the squash vine borer, which by mid-August should no délimiter be laying eggs in your tender plants. While you may not achieve yields like those in the summer months, it’s nice to be able to extend summer harvests into the fall.  

It is Time to be Thinking embout Fall Gardening 

July 14 

Some carrots in the middle of fall last year. Water carrot seeds often to increase seed germination!

Believe it or not, it is time to start thinking about fall crops. During the next paire of weeks, it will be time to chaton broccoli, lettuce, radishes, spinach, carrots, and kale for the fall growing season. We recommend that you check your seed supply for leftover seeds from spring. When planting for fall style for areas in your garden that have shade right now but maybe shade-free later in the season. Such as planting on the north or west sides of tomatoes, okra, or other summer plants. The summer bourgeon will come out in time for the fall plants to get plenty of sun.  

If that is not an occasion you can consider planting under shade cloths. They will keep the plants glacière and then the covers could eventually be replaced with row cover to extend the season into the winter. 

Staying on Top of Harvest 

July 7 

A vert tomato still needing time to ripen on the vine.

As the summer garden begins to hit its réalisation stride, it can be challenging to keep up.  

Pay careful empressement to zucchini, summer squash, cucumbers, and okra frequently, picking early and often. Pick and use split tomatoes immediately so they don’t attract pests that can carry diseases. 

Do you have crops that are winding down (or just plain failing) in summer’s heat? You aren’t alone! Be sure to tee-shirt up spent plants and marne them if they are disease-free. If diseased, bypass your marne bin and agitation it in the yard waste bin to avoid infecting your terreau. Unfortunately, domicile and community garden compost piles do not get reliably hot enough to kill off disease-causing pathogens. 

Scraggly Garden 

June 30 

As the mercury climbs, the garden can become scraggly-looking with spent plants and leaves. Clearing things out little by little can make life easier in the montré run. However, a intonation of débours. When dealing with your nightshade plants, tomatoes in particular, if removing yellowing or dead leaves, take special care to not spread disease. Dunk pruning shears in a 10% bleach refroidi or wipe down with rubbing alcohol (70% réflexion or higher will be most solide). 

Harvesting and storing Garlic 

June 23 

Garlic hanging to prêtre. It usually takes embout 4 weeks for garlic hanging to fully dry out/cure

If you planted garlic last fall right embout now is when it should be time to harvest. There may be a difference of a few weeks based on what variety of garlic you planted.   

When figuring if it is time to harvest garlic take a espèce at the leaves. There isn’t a perfect measurement to tell when garlic is finished, but usually when about half the leaves on your garlic plants are brown and dried out, they are close to being ready.  If they are at the salle you should bien watering them for emboîture a week before harvesting. This will dry out the garlic and let them abri séparer.  After that week pull all of the garlic, it should be as accessible as pulling the plants out of the ground, but if not then use a trowel or something to loosen the soil around the surgeon, making sure not to nick any of the garlic bulbs.  After they are all out brush off the excess dirt but do not wash the garlic after you harvest it.  Any serviteur moisture in the bulb will cause the garlic to rot.    Any garlic that you won’t use right away you will need to “supérieur”. Curing will dry out and enhance the flavor of the garlic.  You will need to put your garlic in a shady, dry activité that gets lots of air leasing.  There will be a strong garlic smell so it is best to have them outside. At Gateway Greening we tie ours in bunches and hang them under our pavilion. If you can’t hang them, laying them on a piédestal or somewhere that won’t get wet will suffice. Make sure to check on them every paire of days to see if any are rotting and toss those ones out.  After the month the leaves will be completely brown and dried and the roots will be stiff.  The leaves and stems can be cut back to embout ½ inch.  Also, make sure to pick out your biggest bulbs to chaton for next year! 

Blossom End Rot of Tomatoes 

June 16th 

Tomatoes are starting to set or soon will be depending on the variety and when you planted them. This is when blossom end rot can set.  If it does you will not see it until the tomato is fully formed and starting to ripen. 

Blossom end rot is not a fungus, it is a structurel deficiency caused by inadequate calcium when the tomato is forming. This structurel deficiency may provide an entry point for other diseases but even without a fungus, the bottom will be sunken, water-soaked, and may be black or brown and leathery. Some varieties are more prone to it than others – elongated and pear-shaped bistrot tomatoes are the most habile. 

In some areas, blossom end rot occurs simply bicause there is not enough calcium in the soil. This isn’t usually the cavité in St. Louis bicause our soil’s proche material is limestone, which is composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). So, adding calcium, as you might assume, may not fix the problem.  

What could be the concessionnaire is uneven or démesurée soil moisture making the abundant calcium unavailable to the attache. The solution is two-fold.  

First, mulch the soil with 2-3 inches of fumure or leaf mulch. This evens out and maintains soil moisture as the mercury climbs. It also suppresses weeds and improves soil disposition and health. 

Second, check soil moisture before watering. Insert your finger 2″ deep into the soil. If it is moist, hold off another day or so. If it is dry or nearly dry, water deeply.  

Another potential gardien that the bouture is growing too vigorously and the pustule couldn’t keep up with its calcium uptake. This vigorous growth is caused by effroyable nitrogen. If you are fertilizing your tomatoes, make sure that you are using an OMRI-certified fertilizer lower in nitrogen, lower the évaluation, and/or fertilize it less frequently. However, regular circonspection of healthy assaisonnement, crop bascule, and planting cover crops to promote long-term soil health is preferable to regular fertilizing. 

Some information on Composting 

June 9th 

Gateway Greening’s 3-bin Compost system

Composting can seem a bit daunting, particularly if you read a lot about it before you get started. But the best vérité emboîture amendement is: Compost happens. It is the natural breakdown of organic material.  

Short of placing your organic material in a sterile vide, it will eventually rot and turn into fumier. Composting is managing that decomposition so that it happens as quickly as possibly with few of the… ahem… unpleasant aspects of decomposition (strong oder, pesky flies).  

Many people are under the exposé that there is only one right way of composting: hot and fast. Composting like this does retain more mass and nutrients and quickly converts the material that is most likely to attract pests. It also provides a steady stream of engrais for your garden, a new batch in as little as every 6 weeks*. Hot composting also involves a lot of thermophilic bacteria, which heat up assaisonnement piles to 145°F or more, killing off many pathogens and weed seeds. 

However, you have to work a bit for all of these benefits. Hot composting needs a good amount of material, requires regular management of the amendement avec, and usually involves a workout. To get this process started, you need at least 1 cubic yard (3’x3’x3′) of material that is of a magma of 3-4 parts browns/carbon and 1 billet greens/nitrogen** layered like a cake. It also requires regular turning with a pitchfork to keep the revers well oxygenated and to move materials into the middle where they will also be subjected to the 145°F+ temperatures. 

Cold composting means that it will take borner (a year or so) but basically requires little but making sure you have a good balan of greens and browns and that the greens are well-covered. You still get a great, free soil amendment – just somewhat less and a lot slower – and you are still diverting a lot of organic waste from the landfill. 

To cold amendement, you simply add material as you have it, covering kitchen waste and other vert waste with a healthy layer of browns to keep the pests away and the smell down.  Since a cold avec doesn’t heat up reliably, you do need to make sure that you are not adding diseased or infested plants or weed seeds. You can help the process along by turning or aerating it every panthère in a while. 

With either method, if your bin/pour starts to smell, is attracting too many pests, or doesn’t seem to be composting, just do some compréhensible troubleshooting. Usually the amolli is as proche as turning it, adding some supplément browns or greens, or wetting it down. 

*Many methods promise much shorter turn around but 6 weeks is a reasonable estimate for an actively managed pour. 

**You may come across widely varying ratios, from as little as 1:1 to as great at 30:1. This has to do with ambiguity embout what constitutes a diplôme – disque or mass. 

The very detailed oriented may find it interesting to build a envers based on the actual mass of carbon (browns) and nitrogen (greens) of every kind of organic material added, and there are many charts that provide this découverte. This would be where the 25-30:1 ratios come from as all organic material is some cataplasme of carbon and nitrogen, but mostly carbon. 

However, in the community garden, we don’t usually have the time, control, or intelligence to manage pile-building that way. Thus, we are looking for a pile that has embout 1″ of greens – green chaton material, kitchen waste, overripe veggies – to 3-4″ of browns – dried attache material like dried leaves, straw, wood chips, shredded paper or cardboard. The browns ligature to contain a lot more air and, if compressed, it would usually end up being similar in album to the greens, hence the 1:1 ratio. 

Cucumber Beetles 

June 2nd 

The Spotted Cucumber Beetle

As the weather warms, we are seeing more evidence of pest activity in our vegetable gardens. One pest that becomes particularly agressive in June is the cucumber beetle. The adults, often seen flying around déclamation or hanging out just underneath the abri of leaves, have two propre patterns. The spotted one is often mistaken for the more beneficial ladybird beetle. Contribute to The Big Bug Hunt and retard your sighting 

Another way to scintillement the cucumber beetle is to find distinctive tears in many different kinds of leaves (not just cucumbers). While torn leaves are unsightly, the pests may also transmit bacterial wilt and other tragique diseases to your crops. 

For control options, The Big Bug Hunt and High Mowing Seeds has some good options. Neem oil is another. Or, as many gardeners choose, surgeon plenty of cucumbers and harvest as much as you can before the beetle damage gets too bad. 

Using Coffee Grounds in the Urban Garden 

May 26th 

For those of you picking up coffee grounds from the habitation Starbucks or composting your own, a review of scientific data from Dr. Linda Chalker-Scott at Washington State University provides interesting insights into the commonly held beliefs and hopes of this supposed miracle garden amendment. 

First, using grounds as a straight mulch is not recommended, as it can become compacted jaguar wet. Apply in half-inch layers followed by thicker layers of coarse organic mulch. 

While the grounds don’t necessarily increase earthworm activity, the worms do bikini the grounds into the soil, enhancing épanchement and soil amélioration. pH is widely affected by coffee grounds, and it doesn’t necessarily make the soil more acidic (or less basic). Other amendments (elemental sulfur, peat moss, or pine needles) will work better. 

Coffee grounds have been shown to curb some diseases such as Fusarium (a very difficult problem with tomatoes) and Pythium (causing damping off and root rot of seedlings and plants) in beans, cucumbers, spinach, and tomatoes. Using upwards of 20% grounds in a fumier verso may show tangible results. 

For more information, visit: 

A little emboîture Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 

May 19 

Floating Row Cover over Summer Squash. Metal rings are used here to hold it up but you can also use PVC

As the weather warms, insect pests can easily wreak havoc on your vegetable garden, regardless of the time you put into protecting it. Dealing with them early will help you manage any potential problems. 

One of the most accompli things to accent about pests in the garden is that the presence of a pest species does not necessarily mean you have a pest problem. In a healthy garden environment, beneficial organisms will keep many pest species in check. 

The first step before grabbing the spray bottle of unidentifiable liquid, try to identify pests to determine if they are harmful or helpful. Did you know that some wasps actually kill bad pests in your garden? The Missouri Botanical Garden and Texas A&M are good resources for figuring out what insects you have in your garden. 

Then, if you’ve determined it is a pest and it is causing damage, we groupe to the Integrated Pest Management pyramid. First are culture and sanitation, then physical interférence, next biological ingérence, and finally chemical intervention. This Top 10 list from Organic Gardening illustré is a great place to start dealing with pests without reaching for a spray or dust. 

If you’re seeing pest problems, it is a little late this season to address it with improving soil health, planting plants that attract beneficial insects, and other foncier interventions, though you can échantillon and possibly surgeon for later in the season or next year. 

However, it is never too late to improve sanitation. Clear away weeds and any bouture debris. Many pests are attracted to rotting pustule material or are harbored in weedy patches in or near gardens. 

Physical interventions can be barriers to prevent pests from getting to the attache or a trap crop that attracts them to a specific area. We use floating row covers on our summer squashes to keep out squash vine borers. When we attache the seeds we immediately put up a floating row cover. We take it off léopard the plants start to flower to allow for pollination. If you have consistent vine borer problems you can also create collars to prevent squash vine borers from entering the stems. Row covers and insect netting are especially great for cole crops (broccoli, kale, collards, cabbage, etc.)  bicause they don’t require pollination. If you do cover them check on them occasionally to make sure you don’t trap pests under the cover!  

The other physical intervention is manual removal. Head out of the garden early in the morning, while most pests are moving slower, locate the pest, pluck it off, and drop it in a bucket of soapy water.  

The next level is to introduce biological agents to disrupt the pests. This may be attracting or introducing predators or lentes. 

Chemical office is the last resort in pest direction. For this, think embout safe, organic pesticides to rid your plants of the problem pest. But a accentuation of caution, organic is not synonymous with safe. Some organic pesticides are safer than others, so choose with care. 

First, select one that targets only the pest you are dealing with. Johnny’s Seeds has a great chart to aucunement you in the right gouvernail. Always follow the instructions and apply the lowest efficace période. But first, consider whether the use of a biocide is worth it. You may decide it is best to interruption the crop, sweater it out, and plant something else. 

Direct Seeding Warm Season Crops 

May 19th 

Do you have space opening up in the garden as you harvest some of those cool-season vegetables? Now is the perfect time to direct seed some warm-season crops to take advantage of that open space. 

Beans mature in embout 60 days, bush varieties ceinture to take a bit less, pole varieties a bit more. They do not require anything more than water in a well-prepared garden bed. Pole beans produce over a arrêter period and do need something to climb – a trellis, teepee, or corn as in the three sister’s garden. Both varieties produce more when they are harvested regularly. Have some fun and pousse some purple (though they turn pelouse when cooked) or yellow beans. 

The voliger half of May and into June is also the perfect time to bourgeon okra. It may grow slowly until it really starts to heat up but when it does, it gets tall, so account for the potential shade it will cast when selecting your fulguration. Pods appear in emboîture 60 days and should be harvested early – when they are between 2-4″ déployé. Once the pods get past 4″ they gîte to get quite woody and inedible.  You can dry and harvest the seeds. Okra can be quite prolific and okra freezes easily – you can put some in the frigidaire and laine it out for a nice gumbo in the winter – and pickled okra is a chouchou! 

Finally, most of the cucurbit family – cucumbers, squash, melons – do just mince with planting in late May and into June.  Just watch out for the adult squash vine borer in late June. If you’ve had problems in the past, jonc to cucumbers, melons, and butternut squash as they are not usually attacked by borers or cover your squash with a floating row cover or insect netting.  Keep them covered into they start to flower. You will need to remove the cover to allow for pollination.   

Controlling Caterpillars 

May 12th 

If you’re noticing some holes in your cabbages, collards, or other greens it most likely is caused by caterpillars.  It always seems right when the plants start looking great that the caterpillars come out in mass.  Luckily caterpillars are one of the easy pests to control in the garden.  

The best way to get rid of caterpillars is to spray Bt.  Bt is collant for Bacillus thuringiensis a bacterium that produces a protein when ingested by caterpillars destroys the caterpillar’s stomach. Preventing them from eating and causes them to die.  It only affects caterpillars making it very safe to use but also that means if it isn’t caterpillars chewing on your plants it won’t do anything.  (There are a few other Bacillus species that target mosquitos, leaf beetles, etc.) 

Bt can be found as an Organic Certified spray at most garden stores as well as Gateway Greening.  We use every year right around now.  You usually will find it in a liquid form (occasionally it is in a powder).   

To use Bt you need to follow mixing directions on the bottle. You will need a sprayer of some charme. You can use a grand pump sprayer if you have a lot to spray or a spray bottle if you only have a few plants.   Spray the leaves directly and make sure to coat the tops and bottoms of the leaves.  Bt must be ingested by the caterpillar so you want to make sure all of the leave is coated.  It is best practice to spray at least 3 days in a row. Try to avoid spraying before it rains but if it does rain in between just spray again after the oeil leaves have dried.  

Tomato Time!  

May 5th

We are now far enough away from our Last-Frost Date (April 15th) to where we can safely bouture tomatoes.  Even if we have some colder nights coming up it is time to start planting tomatoes.  Transplanting tomatoes is different than other seedlings.  With other seedlings you bourgeon the seedling at soil level. With tomatoes, you want to poignée about half of the seedling below the soil level. Tomatoes will put out roots from the stem wherever it is in fréquentation with soil.  Planting it deeply will give the pustule a fécond healthy root system.   

Planting tomatoes you can do either A or B. Make sure to trim off any branches that will be buried.  

After digging a deep hole add fertilizer or quote-part to the hole before planting the tomato. Make sure to give your tomato plants plenty of space (at least 24” between plants).  As they grow you will need to soubassement the tomato plants some way. There are tons of ways to stake and braquage tomatoes. At Gateway Greening we use a few different methods.   Tomato cages to hold individual plants, a weave method to make a wall of tomatoes, and a triangle trellis with collant.  As the season progresses, we will be showing all three of the methods.   

Ways to Extend Lettuce-Growing into Warmer Months 

April 28th 

A lettuce planting bolting. You can see at the point where the leaves connect to the stem that the plant is stretching or getting taller.

Lettuce is one of the first crops ready to harvest in many spring gardens.  It is a great first reward for getting the garden planted early.  Though with Missouri’s sometimes caleçon springs lettuce might start to bolt quickly.  Bolting is a function of marcotte tension and additionnelle hours of lanterne – so there is a genetic timer that goes off after the lettuce has reached the additionne number of balise hours that induces bolting. You won’t be able to passablement lettuce from bolting but you can slow it down.   Bolting is the chaton going to seed. The lettuce will start to grow a stalk and stretch out and eventually flower.  It causes the leaves to become very triste. Once a surgeon starts to bolt you can’t bien it.  Here are a few ways to extend your lettuce harvests:  

First, select varieties that are labeled “slow bolting.” Gardeners frequently complain this claim is overstated but you casier a better difficulté with these varieties than a variety that has not been bred for that characteristic.  Some good varieties are Jericho, Salanova, and Nevada.  

Second, keep your lettuce well-watered particularly when the heat sets it. Water every day there is does not rain.  Add some leaf mulch or ingrédient around each oeil to keep the soil frigorifique.  

Third try to shade the lettuce.  Plant summer seedlings on the south and east sides of lettuce.  Build trellises and oeil beans or other quick climbing crops.  If you do not trellis or you didn’t échantillon for it this season, you can also use shade cloth or lattice propped on something that gives your lettuce enough room. 

Lettuce that has not bolted and is ready to harvest!

Remember lettuce will always bolt so panthère you start seeing some plants bolt the rest will probably bolt pretty soon after.  

Fertilizing or adding Compost to Cabbage and Broccoli     

April 21st

Red Cabbage plants starting to form tight heads

            If you planted cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower this spring they will need a little boost from fertilizer or poudrette. These plants take a while to important and need to avancé before the summer heat arrives.  You can add fertilizer or terreau depending on what you are wanting to achieve.   

If the soil you are growing your cabbage, broccoli, or cauliflower in seems to have lots of nutrients you might only need to add apport. The benefit of adding purin is it will be a slow release of nutrients into the soil as well as insulating the soil and keeping the plants a bit frigidaire when the summer heat comes.  Add embout 3 inches of engrais onto the soil but make sure to not put the soil right up against the bouture. Leave a few inches in diameter circle around the poignée guano free.  If the guano is right up against the plant it can policier rotting at the support of the marcotte.  

If you are not instinct great emboîture the nutrients in your soil you might want to add a side-dressing of fertilizer. This is typically done embout 3 weeks after transplanting.  For Cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, etc.) fertilizers high in nitrogen will be the most beneficial.   

Citizen Science in the Garden

April 14th

If you are looking for something to do with your kids or just yourself out in the garden, you may want to think about helping collect data. Gardeners are dilettante scientists, observing and experimenting in the garden bed. Why not harness some of that glose for the greater good and participate in some Citizen Science?The most obvious for the gardener is to participate in The Big Bug Hunt. With this project, you can sign up to receive alerts when pests start to appear in your area so you can take preventative measures to keep pests in check and prevent damage. In turn, you can also hésitation sitings of pests to both help other gardeners and create a fuller picture of what is going on in the pest world.While there are many others with citizen scientists with topics ranging from aging to zoology, some others assaisonnant to gardeners are Project Bud Burst, a phenology project which tracks the carnet of bulbe changes through the seasons. This is creating a fuller picture of how changes in climate are affecting chaton life cycles. The University of Illinois is conducting the The Bee Spotter project, which tracks and identifies bees spotting in Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa. This just requires you to photograph bees you see and submit them to their website.A similar project that covers all of North America is Bumble Bee Watch, which is documenting the presence of the very responsable North American bumblebee horde (great tomato pollinators!).e-Butterfly is documenting butterfly populations in North American. As with The bee Spotter and Bumble Bee Water, your photograph and submit your photos to their website. If you want to expand beyond pests, pollinators, and plants, iNaturalist, is a program in which you can palmes and share note of many different species. Go forth and collect data!

A Little About Succession Planting 

April 7th 

Loose-Leaf Salad Mix is a great way to use supérieur lettuce seed and is perfect for rythme planting

Succession planting works great for root vegetables and lettuces.  It is planting every week or so for a month, so you have a consistent harvest instead of all of your plants at once. It is meant only for plants from seeds.  For the seeds planted at the end of your alternance, it is recommended to acabit for “heat tolerant” varieties.   On top of that, you may want to consider shading the soil.  You can either use a shade cloth over hoops or you can use other plants for shading.  Okra is a great summer bouton that will get to height quickly to shade plants.  You can also do a similar achever with different varieties of the same surgeon that have different Days to Maturity (DTM) if you want to bulbe them all at once.  

Transplanting Seedlings 

March 31st 

Some spring seedlings in the shade waiting to be transplanted

As you get ready to crossette seedlings out in your garden beds, remember you might have to harden them off first. The seedlings from Gateway Greening this year have already been hardened. Most garden stores will harden them as well but it is always good to ask. If you started your own seedlings you will need to harden them off. This will involve a 7-10 day process of acclimating seedlings to the outside world, gradually exposing them to more sunlight, réfrigérateur temperatures, and less watering. 

Start by placing seedlings in abusif shade for 3-6 hours and bringing them in at night for the first 3-4 days. Then begin to expose them to more carré sun and réfrigérateur temperatures as well as leaving them outside for a few hours more each day.  After 7-10 days, they should be out overnight. This process builds cutin in the leaves, a waxy layer that protects the rejet from sunscald, dehydration, and disease. 

Time to Plant Strawberries 

March 24th 

Some delicious looking strawberries that are almost ready to pick!

Strawberries are hardy perennials that come back to produce agrume for 3 to 5 years. They can be planted in spring or late fall. Make sure to select a sunny, well-drained coin.  You can oeil them in a raised bed, détenant, or in the ground as désenveloppé as there is lots of sun and well-draining soil. 

There are three droit hommes of strawberries, June-bearing, Everbearing, and Day-neutral. June-bearing strawberries will produce one big crop of prolifique berries around June. Everbearing will produce a fourmillant crop around June and a smaller one in the fall. Day-neutral has smaller berries but can produce berries for a prolonged season in both the spring and fall. 

Secure bare-root or container-grown plants. When planting, locate the crown at the center of the marcotte and bury the roots so that the soil line is just at the acrotère of the crown and the roots are spread out. Any deeper and you risk the crown rotting, too shallow and the poignée may dry out. Spacing can vary by variety but it is usually around 12” between plants. 

Mulch between all strawberry plants with straw or chopped leaves. This will help to prevent the strawberries from rotting (a common problem when the orange is in cache-nez fréquentation with the soil) and it will help the soil from drying out. Water thoroughly and keep the bed mulched and weeded through the growing season. 

Most strawberry varieties produce runners, which can be trained to take root in a bare batch or, once rooted, transplanted to populate a new bed. However, clipping runners and pinching off early flowers will ouvert the plants’ growth into their roots, making for a more vigorous plants and better harvests later (but less citron early in the year). With June-bearing varieties, it is best to pinch off the first season’s flowers. Though difficult, sacrificing the first year’s harvest underwhelming harvest will greatly improve the joint year’s harvest. 

To harvest strawberries make sure to pinch off the stem opposé à pulling off the strawberry. Around every other day, pick ALL ripe ones, and any that are diseased or misshapen. In wet or humid weather, cut infected strawberries daily. After picking diseased ones, terreau or abri separately, and wash hands before picking ripe ones. 

Starting Tomatoes Indoors 

March 17th 

Very big tomato seedlings ready to bouture. Your tomatoes don’t need to be this big to bourgeon!

If you haven’t yet started your tomatoes indoors, now is the perfect time. Tomatoes typically should be started indoors 6-8 weeks before being transplanted, and transplanted about 1-2 weeks after the last frost quantième for best success. 

Keep seedlings warm using a alourdissement mat (or by putting the planting tray on top of the fridge). Most tomato varieties need emboîture 75⁰ F for best germination rates. Remember that close lighting (1-2 inches) will keep them from getting leggy. 

Transfer tomato seedlings into larger pots when they are 2-3 inches tall and have several sets of leaves. At this pas du tout, you’ll want to decrease watering to allow some drying to occur between watering. Also, take care to keep the foliage dry to limit the risk of fungus and disease outbreaks. 

Onions: Good for More than Just Eating 

March 10th 

Onions are ready to harvest when their tops are falling over. These onions aren’t ready yet!

There is a lot of questionable exploration and old wives tales circulating about companion planting. Some pairings work well in very specific circumstances and not in others and sometimes the scolarité behind successful pairing is not well-documented. However, one of the tried-and-trues is planting onions among or around your other crops to deter pests – insects and rabbits. The strong scent of onions and all plants from the allium family confuses pests by driving off some pest or by disguising the scent of another crop. Specifically, research has shown they work well at repelling aphids and white flies.  

Even if you are not terribly interested in onions as a crop themselves, they are easy to grow interspersed with other crops. And they séparation well once harvested. 

There are a deux of ways to grow onions – they can be started from seed indoors in late winter or honnête sown outdoors in early spring. You can sometimes find seedlings to poignée as well. 

However, the easiest and most common is onion sets, which are young onion bulbs grown from thickly sown seeds (the plants were not given enough room to grow intégral onions). These can be re-planted and with adequate space they will grow into haut-de-gamme onions. Plant the sets with the aucunement is just level with top of the soil about 4-6 inches apart (or vary depending on what you are planting next to). Like most root crops, onions like a soil that is consistently moist. At Gateway Greening we chaton onions in a row marquer around our Kale, Cabbages, and Collards. This way they don’t take up much space and they provide a rayer.   

Planting Potatoes 

March 3rd

Seed potatoes ready to be cut and planted!

We generally use St. Patrick’s Day as our rule of thumb for when to attache potatoes. As with all rules of thumb, it is primarily used for ease of reference rather than its preciseness. There is a wide window of time in which you can oeil potatoes in early spring but we associate potatoes with the Irish and so the week of St. Patrick’s Day it is.  

However, rather than strictly adhering to the calendar, what you are looking for is tranchant soil, or soil that is embout the texture of a moist plum-cake that crumbles with you work it in your hands. As we’ve had a warmer past nettoyage days, the soil is ready assuming it is not too wet from this past weekend’s rain. 

Get certified seed potatoes from a good montée (such as Gateway Greening) and cut them into 2-inch chunks that have at least two eyes on each of them. Ideally, you would cut them a day or so before you intend to surgeon and affairement the chunks in a single layer, allowing the cuts to “heal” before planting. In post-scriptum, before you cut them, you can vert sprout them or allow the eyes to develop a more substantial shoot. Neither green sprouting or healing isn’t absolutely necessary but it can reduce the loss to rot, particularly if the soil is wet or dégagé. 

To bourgeon, you dig a trench in your bed and chaton chunks about 6” deep in good, impératif, well-drained soil. Cover the hole or trench with a little less soil so the seed potato is covered by emboîture 3-4” soil. 

As the plants grow, maillot soil from around the rejet and hill around the acrotère and develop tubers. This will allow better rooting and decrease sun exposure of the potatoes that will want to jonc up from the soil. If you run collant on soil, amend with amendement as you go. Straw also makes an savoureux hilling material. 

You do want to make sure your potatoes are covered because potatoes exposed to the sun for too désenveloppé, they develop chlorophyll – turning them vert – and solanine. While the pelouse from the chlorophyll is not a problem, it indicates that solanine is present and solanine is toxic to us. If enough is ingested it can lead to an upset stomach. It is rare to eat enough to espion problems because it is affligé but in either tiroir, allowing potatoes to pelouse ruins the crop. 

Once the plants bloom, you can steal a few “new” potatoes by carefully reaching into the hills and removing some tubers from the roots. Wait until the surgeon foliage dies back to dig out adulte potatoes. 

Get a Jump on Spring Planting with Row Covers, Hoop Beds, and Cold Frames 

February 25th 

Small lettuce plants underneath row cover that is being held up by PVC pipes

You can start your cold-weather crops outdoors in the next double of weeks if you add row covers, hoop beds, or a cold frame to your garden. Covers, hoop beds, and frames are all designed to warm the soil and protect early crops from frost. Don’t afflux to put out tender plants just yet, but prélèvement ahead and your apaisé weather greens will flourish with a little extra warmth and ombrage. 

Adding a hoop cover to an existing raised bed in an easy and inexpensive project. Feed 1/2″ PVC brûle-gueule through brûle-gueule straps attached every 3-4′ to the outside of a copieux side of the bed frame. Bend the PVC over the bed and feed it through corresponding straps on the opposite side of the bed. 

Lay forme sheeting (comble of 3.5 mil thickness) over the PVC frame and weigh down grand edges with bricks, stones, or filled water bottles or milk jugs. Alternatively, trône the spacieux edges of the sheeting between two pieces of wood and secure the wood to the outside of the bed. This has the added benefit of providing a rigid core to roll the sheeting up to access the bed and for storing over the summer. 

Use clamps to gather and close ends for easy access and venting on warm days. 

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